Digital forensics is associated in many people’s minds primarily with the investigation of wrongdoing. However, it has also emerged in recent years as a promising source of tools and approaches for facilitating digital preservation and curation, specifically for protecting and investigating evidence from the past.
Institutional repositories and professionals with responsibilities for personal archives and other digital collections can benefit from forensics in addressing digital authenticity, accountability and accessibility. Digital personal information must be handled with due sensitivity and security while demonstrably protecting its evidential value.
Forensic technology makes it possible to: identify privacy issues; establish a chain of custody for provenance; employ write protection for capture and transfer; and detect forgery or manipulation. It can extract and mine relevant metadata and content; enable efficient indexing and searching by curators; and facilitate audit control and granular access privileges. Advancing capabilities promise increasingly effective automation in the handling of ever higher volumes of personal digital information. With the right policies in place, the judicious use of forensic technologies will continue to offer theoretical models, practical solutions and analytical insights.
There are three basic and essential principles in digital forensics: that the evidence is acquired without altering it; that this is demonstrably so; and that analysis is conducted in an accountable and repeatable way. Digital forensic processes, hardware and software have been designed to ensure compliance with these requirements.
Information assurance is critical. Writeblockers ensure that information is captured without altering it, while chains of custody in terms of evidence handling, process control, information audit, digital signatures and watermarking protect the historical evidence from future alteration and uncertain provenance.
Selective redaction, anonymization and encryption, malware sandbox containment and other mechanisms for security and fine-tuned control are required to assure that privacy is fully protected and inadvertent information leakage is prevented. Family computers, portable devices and shareable cloud services all harbour considerable personal information and consequently raise issues of privacy. Digital archivists and forensic practitioners share the need to handle the ensuing personal information responsibly.
The current emphasis on automation in digital forensic research is of particular significance to the curation of cultural heritage, where this capability is increasingly essential in a digital universe that continues to expand exponentially. Current research is directed at handling large volumes efficiently and effectively using a variety of analytical techniques. Parallel processing, for example, through purpose-designed Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), and high performance computing can assist processor-intensive activities such as full search and indexing, filtering and hashing, secure deletion, mining, fusion and visualization.
Especially noteworthy for digital preservation and curation is the way that digital forensics directs attention towards the digital media item as a whole – typically the forensic disk image, the file that represents everything on the original disk.
Forensic technologies vary greatly in their capability, cost and complexity. Some equipment is expensive, but some is free. Some techniques are very straightforward to use, others have to be applied with great care and sophistication. The BitCurator Consortium has been an important development bringing together a community of archival users of open source digital forensic tools (Lee et al, 2014). There is an increasingly rich set of open source forensic tools that are free to obtain and use – most significantly for archivists, BitCurator. These are a wonderful introduction to the ins-and-outs of digital forensics, and can be used to compare and cross-check the outputs of commercial or other open source tools.
Digital archivists and forensic specialists share a common need to monitor and understand how technology is used to create, store, and manage digital information. Additionally, there is a mutual need to manage that information responsibly in conformance with relevant standards and best practice. New forensic techniques are furthering the handling of digital information from mobile devices, networks, live data on remote computers, flash media, virtual machines, cloud services, and encrypted sources. The use of encryption is beginning to present significant challenges for digital preservation. It is not only a matter of decryption but of identifying encryption in the first place. Digital forensics offers some solutions.
Forensic and archival methodology must retain the ability both to retrospectively interpret events represented on digital devices, and to react quickly to the changing digital landscape by the rapid institution of certifiable and responsible policies, procedures and facilities. The pace of change also has implications for ongoing training of curators and archivists, and there are digital forensics courses endorsed by archival, scholarly and preservation institutions.
In conclusion, there are some deep challenges ahead for cultural heritage and archives, but the forensic perspective is undoubtedly among the most promising sources of insights and solutions. Equally, digital forensics can benefit from the advances being made in the curation and preservation of digital information. This brief overview has been based on short excerpts from The Digital Preservation Technology Watch Report on Digital Forensics and Preservation (John, 2012) with additional material kindly provided by Jeremy Leighton John, the author of the report
BitCurator project put together an open source suite of digital forensics tools specifically to be used in library and archives born-digital workflows. It contains a range of tools that can be run from a Linux environment. The available tools include:
FRED is a digital forensics workstation sold by Digital Intelligence. It has a number of ports, media readers and built-in writeblockers. FRED also has internal RAID storage. This system uses FTK imager software for creating and reading disk images.
Kyroflux is a floppy disk controller used in creating disk images of floppy disks. Its advantages over USB floppy disk readers is that the Kyroflux can: