"National Government publishes the Government Gazette as a tool to communicate messages of national importance to the general public. It contains information of a legal, administrative and general nature. Government Gazettes are published as one of the following:
Modern South Africa is a democratic republic with a written constitution.
The South African Constitution Act 1996 took effect on 3 February 1997.
The President is both head of state and head of the executive. S/he is elected by the National Assembly from its own members.
The President, as head of the Cabinet, appoints the Deputy President and Ministers (from the ranks of the National Assembly), assigns their powers and functions, and may dismiss them.
The legislature is the National Parliament. It is bicameral, made up of
The Constitution allows the nine provinces of South Africa power to pass their own laws on certain subjects, but these laws must not conflict with national legislation.
South Africa has a mixed legal system. Its doctrines and concepts are influenced both by the civilian tradition (in an uncodified Romano-Dutch form brought by early Dutch settlers) and by the common law tradition (introduced during the British colonial period).
Indigenous people may still choose to be subject to customary law, so long as it does not conflict with the Constitution.
Chapter 8 (ss.165-180) of the Constitution, "Courts and Administration of Justice" sets out the structure of South Africa's court system and defines the role of each court.
Section 165 says the judicial authority of South Africa is vested in the courts, which are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law. Section 166 identifies these courts as: