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Legal history: England & common law tradition: Canon & Civil Lawyers

Admiralty Courts

Canonists & Civilians

Until the Victorian reforms, the ecclesiastical and admiralty courts were the preserve of practitioners with a different specialist education to that of the common lawyers.

Prior to the Reformation the advocates (barristers) were trained in Canon law, after the Reformation in Civil (Roman) law - in other words had a doctorate from either Oxford or Cambridge. Most advocates were members of Doctors' Commons.

The proctors (attorneys) learnt through on the job training.